What Is Cybersecurity?

Cybercriminals are continuously devising new ways to infiltrate our systems and exploit our digital vulnerabilities. Fortunately, a few simple steps can make a big difference in protecting yourself and your business. Learn more about cybersecurity, the most common types of cyber threats, and how you can strengthen your defenses against cyberattacks.

What is cybersecurity, exactly?

Cybersecurity is the combination of tools, technologies, and practices used to protect computers, networks, devices, systems, and data from unauthorized access or attack. Cybercrime can include the use of malicious software, theft of sensitive information, extortion, and business disruption. You may also hear cybersecurity referred to as IT security.

This article contains:

  • Why is cybersecurity important?
  • Types of cybersecurity.
  • Types of cyber threats.
  • How to improve cybersecurity.
  • Switch to a proactive cybersecurity solution.

Why is cybersecurity important?

As cyberattacks become increasingly complex, threats can impact businesses, freelancers, and individuals alike. The number of attacks is also on the rise – in the last five years alone, cyberattacks have increased by 67%.The consequences of a successful cyberattack can be costly. For small businesses in the UK, the average financial cost of a security breach in the past 12 months was £3,110 (US $4,185), while for medium and large firms, the cost was significantly higher.

Regulatory requirements are also evolving, with the aim of holding organizations more accountable for protecting the data in their care. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which came into effect in May 2018, gives regulators the power to fine organizations up to €20 million (US $24 million), or 4% of their annual global turnover, for violations.

Beyond the direct cost of an attack, your business could experience reputational damage and a loss of credibility among current and potential customers.

Altogether, these growing risks mean that when storing and sharing data and sensitive information online, it’s important to keep your cybersecurity knowledge up to date and make sure you maintain the right level of protection.

Types of cybersecurity

Let’s take a look at some of the key cybersecurity categories and how they work:

Network security

Network security safeguards your internal computer networks and includes the protection of both hardware and software. It prevents threats like intruders or malware from entering your network and spreading. Network security tools include antivirus and anti-malware software, firewalls, and virtual private networks (VPNs).

Application security

Application security aims to increase the security of your apps by removing vulnerabilities and enhancing security features. Although most of this will be done at the development stage, updates and patches will be released after an app has been launched.

Common threats to applications include unauthorized access to sensitive information and modification. An SQL injection attack is one example. To ensure robust application security, consider using a patch management tool to regularly check for new patches and updates and install them as soon as possible.

Endpoint security

Endpoint security protects all devices connected to your networks, such as desktops, laptops, servers, and mobile phones. They will be protected against cyber threats like unauthorized access, data breaches, malware, and ransomware. Common endpoint protection solutions include antivirus software, VPNs, and anti-phishing email scanners.

Data security

Data security refers to the policies, processes, and technologies you have in place to prevent data from being modified, destroyed, or disclosed, whether accidentally or maliciously. Examples of data protection practices include using strong passwords to avoid unauthorized access, running regular system backups to aid recovery, and using encryption to prevent data from being easily read.

Types of cyber threats

There are many types of cyber threats – malware, phishing, denial of service (DoS), and SQL injection, just to name a few. Below, we look at some of the most common and high-profile threats you might encounter:

Malware

Malware covers the full spectrum of malicious software – from viruses, worms, and trojans to spyware, ransomware, and rootkits. Users can accidentally install or download malware – usually in the form of email attachments – and it can then go about its sinister business, often undetected.

WannaCry is a famous example of malware, or more specifically ransomware, causing havoc across the world. In 2017, WannaCry hijacked infected computers running Microsoft Windows and demanded a payment in Bitcoin for their return. More than 200,000 computers in over 150 countries were affected.

SQL injection

SQL injection is a common web hacking technique where cybercriminals insert malicious code into a website with the intention of accessing and manipulating private information stored in the website’s database. The target might include users’ login credentials that allow the hacker to impersonate the user or sell the information. Preventing an SQL injection attack requires advanced knowledge of website development.

Denial of service (DoS)The aim of a denial of service or distributed denial-of-service attack is to cause a website, machine, or network to crash, making it unavailable to its intended users. Malicious actors achieve this by flooding the target with requests until it becomes overwhelmed and is unable to serve additional users, resulting in a denial of service.

Man-in-the-middle attacks

A man-in-the-middle attack takes place when two parties are trying to communicate, and a third party – the ‘man in the middle – intercepts the communication of either party with the intention of stealing data or impersonating them. The victim remains unaware that this is taking place.

For example, cybercriminals may create a fake eCommerce website then persuade a user to log in by sending an email pretending to be the legitimate owner of the store. Once the user logs in to the nefarious website, they have unintentionally handed over their credentials to the cybercriminal.

Switch to a proactive cybersecurity solution

Cyberthreats are continually evolving, so your defences should too. Protect your business devices, data, and applications with advanced threat detection, proactive solutions, and automated patch management.

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